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Published duration 20 October. Published duration 28 September. Attribution Norfolk. Published duration 12 September. Attribution Middle East.
Published duration 10 September. Attribution Wrestling. Published duration 28 February. The sport was introduced into the ancient Olympics in BC, shortly after the Games' recorded history began.
In , Olympic officials added freestyle wrestling, commonly known as "catch as catch can", to the programme. This style had far less history and tradition than Greco-Roman but did possess great popularity, having developed into a form of professional entertainment performed at fairs and festivals across Great Britain and the United States.
In Greco-Roman wrestling, the wrestlers use only their arms and upper bodies to attack, and can only hold those same parts of their opponents. Playing into this, some wrestlers would "milk" the count by sliding in the ring and immediately sliding back out.
As he was technically inside the ring for a split second before exiting again, it is sufficient to restart the count. This is often referred to by commentators as "breaking the count".
Heels often use this tactic in order to buy themselves more time to catch their breath, or to attempt to frustrate their babyface opponents.
If all the active wrestlers in a match are down inside the ring at the same time, the referee would begin a count usually ten seconds, twenty in Japan.
If nobody rises to their feet by the end of the count, the match is ruled a draw. Any participant who stands up in time would end the count for everyone else, while in a Last Man Standing match this form of a countout is the only way that the match can end, so the referee would count when one or more wrestlers are down and one wrestler standing up before the count does not stop the count for another wrestler who is still down.
In some promotions and most major modern ones , Championships cannot change hands via a countout, unless the on-screen authority declares it for at least one match, although in others, championships may change hands via countout.
Heels are known to take advantage of this and will intentionally get counted out when facing difficult opponents, especially when defending championships.
Disqualification sometimes abbreviated as "DQ" occurs when a wrestler violates the match's rules, thus losing automatically. Although a countout can technically be considered a disqualification as it is, for all intents and purposes, an automatic loss suffered as a result of violating a match rule , the two concepts are often distinct in wrestling.
A no disqualification match can still end by countout although this is rare. Typically, a match must be declared a "no holds barred" match, a "street fight" or some other term, in order for both disqualifications and countouts to be waived.
In practice, not all rule violations will result in a disqualification as the referee may use his own judgement and is not obligated to stop the match.
Usually, the only offenses that the referee will see and immediately disqualify the match on as opposed to having multiple offenses are low blows , weapon usage , interference, or assaulting the referee.
In WWE, a referee must see the violation with his own eyes to rule that the match end in a disqualification simply watching the video tape is not usually enough and the referee's ruling is almost always final, although dusty finishes named after, and made famous by, Dusty Rhodes will often result in the referee's decision being overturned.
It is not uncommon for the referees themselves to get knocked out during a match, which is commonly referred to by the term "ref bump". While the referee remains "unconscious", wrestlers are free to violate rules until he is revived or replaced.
In some cases, a referee might disqualify a person under the presumption that it was that wrestler who knocked him out; most referee knockouts are arranged to allow a wrestler, usually a heel, to gain an advantage.
For example, a wrestler may get whipped into a referee at a slower speed, knocking the ref down for short amount of time; during that interim period, one wrestler may pin his opponent for a three-count and would have won the match but for the referee being down sometimes, another referee will sprint to the ring from backstage to attempt to make the count, but by then, the other wrestler has had enough time to kick out on his own accord.
In most promotions, a championship title cannot normally change hands via disqualification; this rule is explicitly enforced in a title match under special circumstances.
If all participants in a match continue to breach the referee's instructions, the match may end in a double disqualification, where both wrestlers or teams in a tag team match have been disqualified.
The match is essentially nullified, and called a draw or in some cases a restart or the same match being held at a pay-per-view or next night's show.
Sometimes, however, if this happens in a match to determine the challenger for a heel champion's title, the champion is forced to face both opponents simultaneously for the title.
Usually, the double disqualification is caused by the heel wrestler's associates in a match between two face wrestlers to determine his opponent.
Although extremely rare, a match can end in a forfeit if the opponent either does not show up for the match, or shows up but refuses to compete.
Although a championship usually cannot change hands except by pinfall or submission, a forfeit victory is enough to crown a new champion. Forfeit victories are extremely rare in wrestling.
When a pay-per-view match is booked and one wrestler is unable to make it for one reason or another, it is usually customary to insert a last minute replacement rather than award a wrestler a victory by forfeit.
Forfeit victories are almost always reserved for when the story the promotion is telling specifically requires such an ending.
In addition to the aforementioned moment between Steve Austin and The Rock, other instance of this happening was in March , when Triple H decided not to show up for a handicap match against Cody Rhodes and Ted Dibiase Jr.
Despite being, statistically, an extremely rare occurrence, Charles Wright is one wrestler who is famous for turning forfeit victories into his own gimmick.
During the late s, Wright called himself "The Godfather" and portrayed the gimmick of a pimp. He would often bring multiple women, who he referred to as "hos," to the ring with him, and would offer the sexual services of these women to his opponents in exchange for them forfeiting their matches against him.
A professional wrestling match can end in a draw. A draw occurs if both opponents are simultaneously disqualified as via countout or if the referee loses complete control of the match and both opponents attack each other with no regard to being in a match, like Brock Lesnar vs.
Undertaker at Unforgiven , neither opponent is able to answer a ten-count, or both opponents simultaneously win the match.
The latter can occur if, for example, one opponent's shoulders touch the mat while maintaining a submission hold against another opponent.
If the opponent in the hold begins to tap out at the same time a referee counts to three for pinning the opponent delivering the hold, both opponents have legally achieved scoring conditions simultaneously.
Traditionally, a championship may not change hands in the event of a draw though it may become vacant , though some promotions such as Total Nonstop Action Wrestling have endorsed rules where the champion may lose a title by disqualification.
A variant of the draw is the time-limit draw, where the match does not have a winner by a specified time period a one-hour draw, which was once common, is known in wrestling circles as a "Broadway".
Also if two wrestlers have been given a disqualification by either the referee or the chairman, this is a no contest and if there is a title on the line the champion keeps the championship.
A wrestling match may be declared a no contest if the winning conditions are unable to occur. This can be due to excessive interference, loss of referee's control over the match, one or more participants sustaining debilitating injury not caused by the opponent, or the inability of a scheduled match to even begin.
A no contest is a state separate and distinct from a draw — a draw indicates winning conditions were met. Although the terms are sometimes used interchangeably in practice, this usage is technically incorrect.
While each wrestling match is ostensibly a competition of athletics and strategy, the goal from a business standpoint is to excite and entertain the audience.
Although the competition is staged, dramatic emphasis draws out the most intense reaction. Heightened interest results in higher attendance, increased ticket sales, higher ratings on television broadcasts greater ad revenue , higher pay-per-view buyrates, and sales of branded merchandise and recorded video footage.
All of these contribute to the profit of the promotion company. In Latin America and English-speaking countries, most wrestlers and other on-stage performers portray character roles, sometimes with personalities wildly different from their own.
These personalities are a gimmick intended to heighten interest in a wrestler without regard to athletic ability.
In lucha libre , many characters wear masks, adopting a secret identity akin to a superhero , a near-sacred tradition. An individual wrestler may use his real name, or a minor variation of it, for much of his career, such as Bret Hart , John Cena and Randy Orton.
Others can keep one ring name for their entire career Shawn Michaels , CM Punk and Ricky Steamboat , or may change from time to time to better suit the demands of the audience or company.
Sometimes a character is owned and trademarked by the company, forcing the wrestler to find a new one when he leaves although a simple typeset change, such as changing Rhyno to Rhino , can get around this , and sometimes a character is owned by the wrestler.
Sometimes, a wrestler may change his legal name to obtain ownership of his ring name Andrew Martin and Warrior.
Many wrestlers such as The Rock and The Undertaker are strongly identified with their character, even responding to the name in public or between friends.
Typically, matches are staged between a protagonist historically an audience favorite, known as a babyface , or "the good guy" and an antagonist historically a villain with arrogance, a tendency to break rules, or other unlikable qualities, called a heel.
In recent years, however, antiheroes have also become prominent in professional wrestling. There is also a less common role of a "tweener", who is neither fully face nor fully heel yet able to play either role effectively case in point, Samoa Joe during his first run in TNA Wrestling from June to November This may be an abrupt, surprising event, or it may slowly build over time.
It is almost always accomplished with a markable change in behavior. Some turns become defining points in a career, as when Hulk Hogan turned heel after being a top face for over a decade.
Others may have no noticeable effect on the character's status. If a character repeatedly switches between face and heel, this lessens the effect of such turns, and may result in apathy from the audience.
As with personae in general, a character's face or heel alignment may change with time, or remain constant over its lifetime the most famous example of the latter is Ricky Steamboat , a WWE Hall of Famer who remained a babyface throughout his entire career.
Sometimes a character's heel turn will become so popular that eventually the audience response will alter the character's heel-face cycle to the point where the heel persona will, in practice, become a face persona, and what was previously the face persona, will turn into the heel persona, such as when Dwayne Johnson first began using "The Rock" persona as a heel character, as opposed to his original "Rocky Maivia" babyface persona.
Another legendary example is Stone Cold Steve Austin , who was originally booked as a heel, with such mannerisms as drinking on the job, using profanity , breaking company property, and even breaking into people's private homes.
However, much to WWF's surprise, the fans got such a charge out of Austin's antics that he effectively became one of the greatest antiheroes in the history of the business.
While real exhibition matches are now not uncommon, most matches tell a story analogous to an episode of a serial drama: The face will from time to time win triumph or from time to time lose tragedy , and longer story arcs can result from a couple of matches.
Since most promotions have a championship title, opposition for the championship is a frequent impetus for stories.
Also, whatever from a character's own hair to his job with the advertising can be wagered in a match. Some matches are designed to further the story of only one participant.
It could be intended to portray an unstoppable force, a lucky underdog, a sore loser, or any other characterization. Sometimes non-wrestling vignettes are shown to enhance a character's image without the need for matches.
Other stories result from a natural rivalry. Outside of performance, these are referred to as feuds. A feud can exist between any number of participants and can last from a few days to decades.
The feud between Ric Flair and Ricky Steamboat lasted from the late s into the early s and allegedly spanned over two thousand matches although most of those matches were mere dark matches.
The career-spanning history between characters Mike Awesome and Masato Tanaka is another example of a long-running feud, as is the case of Steve Austin vs.
Vince McMahon , one of the most lucrative feuds in the World Wrestling Federation during and In theory, the longer a feud is built up, the more audience interest aka heat lasts.
The main event of a wrestling show is generally the most heated. Commonly, a heel will hold the upper hand over a face until a final showdown, heightening dramatic tension as the face's fans desire to see him win.
Throughout the history of professional wrestling, many other elements of media have been utilized in professional wrestling storytelling: pre- and post-match interviews, "backstage" skits, positions of authority and worked behind-the-scenes feuds, division rankings typically the 1-contendership spot , contracts, lotteries, news stories on websites, and in recent years social media.
Also, anything that can be used as an element of drama can exist in professional wrestling stories: romantic relationships including love triangles and marriage , racism, classism, nepotism, favoritism, corporate corruption, family bonds, personal histories, grudges, theft, cheating, assault, betrayal, bribery, seduction, stalking, confidence tricks, extortion, blackmail, substance abuse, self-doubt, self-sacrifice; even kidnapping, sexual fetishism, necrophilia, misogyny, rape and death have been portrayed in wrestling.
Some promotions have included supernatural elements such as magic, curses, the undead and Satanic imagery most notably the Undertaker and his Ministry of Darkness , a stable that regularly performed evil rituals and human sacrifice in Satanic-like worship of a hidden power figure.
Celebrities would also be involved in storylines. Commentators have become important in communicating the relevance of the characters' actions to the story at hand, filling in past details and pointing out subtle actions that may otherwise go unnoticed.
A main part of the story-telling part of wrestling is a promo, short for promotional interview. Promos are performed, or "cut", in wrestling jargon , for a variety of reasons, including to heighten interest in a wrestler, or to hype an upcoming match.
Since the crowd is often too loud or the venue too large for promos to be heard naturally, wrestlers will use amplification when speaking in the ring.
Unlike most Hollywood acting, large and highly visible handheld microphones are typically used and wrestlers often speak directly to the audience. Professional wrestling mimics the structure of title match combat sports.
Participants compete for a championship and must defend it after winning it. These titles are represented physically by a title belt that can be worn by the champion.
In the case of team wrestling, there is a title belt for each member of the team. Almost all professional wrestling promotions have one major title, and some have more.
Championships are designated by divisions of weight, height, gender, wrestling style and other qualifications.
Typically, each promotion only recognizes the "legitimacy" of their own titles, although cross-promotion does happen.
When one promotion absorbs or purchases another, the titles from the defunct promotion may continue to be defended in the new promotion or be decommissioned.
Behind the scenes , the bookers in a company will place the title on the most accomplished performer, or those the bookers believe will generate fan interest in terms of event attendance and television viewership.
Lower ranked titles may also be used on the performers who show potential, thus allowing them greater exposure to the audience.
However other circumstances may also determine the use of a championship. A combination of a championship's lineage, the caliber of performers as champion, and the frequency and manner of title changes, dictates the audience's perception of the title's quality, significance and reputation.
A wrestler's championship accomplishments can be central to their career, becoming a measure of their performance ability and drawing power.
In general, a wrestler with multiple title reigns or an extended title reign is indicative of a wrestler's ability to maintain audience interest or a wrestler's ability to perform in the ring.
As such, the most accomplished or decorated wrestlers tend to be revered as legends due to the amount of title reigns they hold.
American wrestler Ric Flair has had multiple world heavyweight championship reigns spanning over three decades. Often a match will take place under additional rules, usually serving as a special attraction or a climactic point in a feud or storyline.
Sometimes this will be the culmination of an entire feud, ending it for the immediate future known as a blowoff match. Perhaps the most well-known non-standard match is the cage match , in which the ring is surrounded by a fence or similar metal structure, with the express intention of preventing escape or outside interference—and with the added bonus of the cage being a potentially brutal weapon or platform for launching attacks.
The WWE has another provision where a standard cage match can end with one wrestler or wrestling team escaping the cage through the door or over the top.
Another example is the WWE's Royal Rumble match, which involves thirty participants in a random and unknown order. The Rumble match is itself a spectacle in that it is a once-yearly event with multiple participants, including individuals who might not interact otherwise.
Some high schools in the U. Junior varsity and freshman wrestling teams restrict competitors not only by weight, but also by age and the amount of wrestling a competitor can partake in.
For example, some junior varsity and freshman competitors are not allowed in tournament competition due to the amount of mat time a wrestler would accrue in a short time period.
Women's college wrestling in the U. A school chooses which athletic organization to join, although it may compete against teams from other levels and organizations during regular-season competition.
Professional wrestling is often concluded in a raised ring; akin to boxing. Professional wrestling was considered a genuinely competitive sport up until around the s, with occasional shoot matches still occurring well into the s and 40s.
Modern day professional wrestling, although advertised as contests , are actually exhibitions with winners generally pre-determined to increase entertainment value.
Professional wrestling has traditionally been based on catch wrestling holds, although earlier forms existed based on Greco-Roman wrestling in the 19th century.
Matches are highly theatrical, with dramatic stories such as feuds between the athletes developed and performed as part of build-up and promotion for matches.
Before its increase in popularity in the mid s, professional wrestling in the United States was organised as a cartel of regional monopolies, known as "territories.
A different style of professional wrestling evolved in the United Kingdom and spread across Western Europe where it was known as "Catch" in the non English speaking countries of mainland Europe.
Traditionally in this style, there was less use of storylines and angles to promote the matches which, for the most part, had the atmosphere of real wrestling competition.
In many countries such as the UK, this form of professional wrestling achieved mainstream popularity with television making household names of its stars, but later declined and was supplanted both on television and in wider culture by imported American wrestling.
Some promoters in the UK and to a lesser extent France and Germany still produce live shows in this style but face stiff competition from more American-styled rivals.
Japanese professional wrestling, also known as puroresu , is also treated more as a sport than the entertainment style of wrestling common in North America.
Techniques include use of amateur or shoot wrestling tactics in addition to hard hitting martial arts strikes and complex submission maneuvers.
This means that the wrestlers are more prone to injury. Mexican professional wrestling, also known as lucha libre , is a style of wrestling using special holds.
Most performers, known as luchadores singular luchador , begin their careers wearing masks, but most will lose their masks during their careers. Traditionally a match involves the best of three rounds, with no time limit.
Each luchador uses his own special wrestling style or "estilo de lucha" consisting of aerial attack moves, strikes and complex submission holds.
In France in the 19th century, early professional wrestling shows in the Greco-Roman style were often performed at the circus by the resident strongmen.
This style later spread to circuses in Eastern Europe, particularly in Russia where it was a staple part of circuses in the Soviet era, where it was often advertised as "French wrestling.
Sambo is a martial art that originated in the Soviet Union specifically Russia in the 20th century.
It is an acronym for "self-defence without weapons" in Russian and had its origins in the Soviet armed forces. Its influences are varied, with techniques borrowed from sports ranging from the two international wrestling styles of Greco-Roman and freestyle to judo, jujitsu, European styles of folk wrestling , and even fencing.
The rules for sport sambo are similar to those in competitive judo, with a variety of leg locks and defense holds from the various national wrestling styles in the Soviet Union, while not allowing chokeholds.
The rapid rise in the popularity of mixed martial arts MMA has increased interest in wrestling due to its effectiveness in the sport.
Already in the early stages of MMA development, wrestling gained respect due to its effectiveness against traditional martial artists.
The competitive wrestlers, the highly successful amateur wrestlers have such tremendous mental toughness.
If you can just get through the room, the wrestling room practices at like really high level universities, NCAA division one teams; those guys are savages.
The stuff they go through, just the overtraining, just the mental toughness that you have to develop. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Form of combat sport involving grappling type techniques. For the dramatized athletic spectacle, see Professional wrestling. For other uses, see The Wrestler.